A la découverte de Windows 7 : Cahier 1 (French Edition)

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His widow claimed that Camus, though discreet, was in fact an ardent supporter of French Algeria in the last years of his life. To increase international and domestic French attention to their struggle, the FLN decided to bring the conflict to the cities and to call a nationwide general strike and also to plant bombs in public places. The most notable instance was the Battle of Algiers, which began on September 30, , when three women, including Djamila Bouhired and Zohra Drif , simultaneously placed bombs at three sites including the downtown office of Air France.

The FLN carried out shootings and bombings in the spring of , resulting in civilian casualties and a crushing response from the authorities.

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General Jacques Massu was instructed to use whatever methods deemed necessary to restore order in the city and to find and eliminate terrorists. Using paratroopers, he broke the strike and, in the succeeding months, destroyed the FLN infrastructure in Algiers. But the FLN had succeeded in showing its ability to strike at the heart of French Algeria and to assemble a mass response to its demands among urban Muslims.

The publicity given to the brutal methods used by the army to win the Battle of Algiers, including the use of torture, strong movement control and curfew called quadrillage and where all authority was under the military, created doubt in France about its role in Algeria. What was originally " pacification " or a "public order operation" had turned into a colonial war accompanied by torture. During and , the FLN successfully applied hit-and-run tactics in accordance with guerrilla warfare theory.

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Whilst some of this was aimed at military targets, a significant amount was invested in a terror campaign against those in any way deemed to support or encourage French authority. This resulted in acts of sadistic torture and brutal violence against all, including women and children. Specializing in ambushes and night raids and avoiding direct contact with superior French firepower, the internal forces targeted army patrols, military encampments, police posts, and colonial farms, mines, and factories, as well as transportation and communications facilities.

Once an engagement was broken off, the guerrillas merged with the population in the countryside, in accordance with Mao's theories. Kidnapping was commonplace, as were the ritual murder and mutilation of civilians [47] [ dubious — discuss ] see Torture section. Although successfully provoking fear and uncertainty within both communities in Algeria, the revolutionaries' coercive tactics suggested that they had not yet inspired the bulk of the Muslim people to revolt against French colonial rule.

In these places, the FLN established a simple but effective—although frequently temporary—military administration that was able to collect taxes and food and to recruit manpower. But it was never able to hold large, fixed positions. The loss of competent field commanders both on the battlefield and through defections and political purges created difficulties for the FLN. Some officers created their own fiefdoms, using units under their command to settle old scores and engage in private wars against military rivals within the FLN.

Despite complaints from the military command in Algiers, the French government was reluctant for many months to admit that the Algerian situation was out of control and that what was viewed officially as a pacification operation had developed into a war.

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By , there were more than , French troops in Algeria. Although the elite colonial infantry airborne units and the Foreign Legion bore the brunt of offensive counterinsurgency combat operations, approximately , Muslim Algerians also served in the regular French army, most of them volunteers. France also sent air force and naval units to the Algerian theater, including helicopters. In addition to service as a flying ambulance and cargo carrier, French forces utilized the helicopter for the first time in a ground attack role in order to pursue and destroy fleeing FLN guerrilla units.

The American military later used the same helicopter combat methods in the Vietnam War. The SAS's mission was to establish contact with the Muslim population and weaken nationalist influence in the rural areas by asserting the "French presence" there. Armed with shotguns and using guerrilla tactics similar to those of the FLN, the harkis , who eventually numbered about , volunteers, more than the FLN activists, [49] were an ideal instrument of counterinsurgency warfare.

Harkis were mostly used in conventional formations, either in all-Algerian units commanded by French officers or in mixed units. Other uses included platoon or smaller size units, attached to French battalions, in a similar way as the Kit Carson Scouts by the U. A third use was an intelligence gathering role, with some reported minor pseudo-operations in support of their intelligence collection. Cline stated, "The extent of these pseudo-operations appears to have been very limited both in time and scope.

The most widespread use of pseudo type operations was during the 'Battle of Algiers' in The principal French employer of covert agents in Algiers was the Fifth Bureau, the psychological warfare branch. They planted incriminating forged documents, spread false rumors of treachery and fomented distrust. As a frenzy of throat-cutting and disemboweling broke out among confused and suspicious FLN cadres, nationalist slaughtered nationalist from April to September and did France's work for her. One organized pseudo-guerrilla unit, however, was created in December by the French DST domestic intelligence agency.

The Organization of the French Algerian Resistance ORAF , a group of counter-terrorists had as its mission to carry out false flag terrorist attacks with the aim of quashing any hopes of political compromise. Corpses of purported FLN members displayed by the unit were in fact those of dissidents and members of other Algerian groups killed by the FLN. The French Army finally discovered the war ruse and tried to hunt down Force K members. However, some managed to escape and join the FLN with weapons and equipment. Late in , General Raoul Salan , commanding the French Army in Algeria, instituted a system of quadrillage surveillance using a grid pattern , dividing the country into sectors, each permanently garrisoned by troops responsible for suppressing rebel operations in their assigned territory.

Salan's methods sharply reduced the instances of FLN terrorism but tied down a large number of troops in static defense. Salan also constructed a heavily patrolled system of barriers to limit infiltration from Tunisia and Morocco. The French military command ruthlessly applied the principle of collective responsibility to villages suspected of sheltering, supplying, or in any way cooperating with the guerrillas.

Villages that could not be reached by mobile units were subject to aerial bombardment. FLN guerrillas that fled to caves or other remote hiding places were tracked and hunted down. In one episode, FLN guerrillas who refused to surrender and withdraw from a cave complex were dealt with by French Foreign Legion Pioneer troops, who, lacking flamethrowers or explosives, simply bricked up each cave, leaving the residents to die of suffocation.

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Finding it impossible to control all of Algeria's remote farms and villages, the French government also initiated a program of concentrating large segments of the rural population, including whole villages, in camps under military supervision to prevent them from aiding the rebels. Living conditions in the fortified villages were poor. In hundreds of villages, orchards and croplands not already burned by French troops went to seed for lack of care. These population transfers effectively denied the use of remote villages to FLN guerrillas, who had used them as a source of rations and manpower, but also caused significant resentment on the part of the displaced villagers.

Relocation's social and economic disruption continued to be felt a generation later. The French Army shifted its tactics at the end of from dependence on quadrillage to the use of mobile forces deployed on massive search-and-destroy missions against FLN strongholds. In , Salan's successor, General Maurice Challe , appeared to have suppressed major rebel resistance, but political developments had already overtaken the French Army's successes. Recurrent cabinet crises focused attention on the inherent instability of the Fourth Republic and increased the misgivings of the army and of the pieds-noirs that the security of Algeria was being undermined by party politics.

Army commanders chafed at what they took to be inadequate and incompetent political initiatives by the government in support of military efforts to end the rebellion. The feeling was widespread that another debacle like that of Indochina in was in the offing and that the government would order another precipitate pullout and sacrifice French honor to political expediency. Branner also chose to use the wooden fence as a self-regulating filter. Some did not know where to cross this border. Others knew but did not want to or dare crossing it see image 2.

In Bicot et Suzy. In other squares, they went through some conspicuous hole passersby could see but did not pay attention to. The characters from the comic book had different ways of going or not through the fence or behaving on each side of it. These ways showed which group the characters belonged to. Bicot was the only kid who was part of the two worlds.

Bicot complained when he was dressed up as a higher-class child.

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He seemed ill-at-ease as a stiff, well-dressed boy in disguise. Besides, his friends did make fun of him, called him a girl, and sometimes did not recognize him anymore. In total, 23 Bicot stories, i.

They knew what was allowed by it, and what was not. On the other side of the fence, the kids became a gang and a strong bond connected them. Inversely, the occasional intruders were thrown out or outcast. Branner always kept them away, though always close to the fence.

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In these conditions, the street stood as a neutral field in which many situations unfolded. More precisely, for the purpose of this study, we needed to focus on how the characters played with the fence and sometimes used it.

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How did crossing the border change the narrative as well as the way the heroes behaved and acted? Bicot played the part of a link between different — or at least differentiated — worlds, namely the playground and the streets or downtown. In France and the United States, these locations reserved for reurbanization dealt with issues of space management and, as a result, social issues as well. In the United States, these new, emerging neighborhoods were occupied by middle-class and working-class families. The American way of life represented some kind of ideal, a model for the French to emulate during the interwar period.

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However, even though these facts showed the attraction between these two countries, they need to be nuanced since there was also some kind of aversion brewing which could explain the reactions of the public opinion ROGER, Indeed, Bicot stories unfolding in the city featured a fence. These wooden walls stood as a link between different social backgrounds. They were a kind of contact zone, as well as a combat zone. In numerous pages of Bicot , the fence seemed to favor the poor while excluding the rich.

Coming from a poor background, second-class citizens wanted to climb the social ladder. Several American Founding Myths, such as the rise from rags to riches and the figure of the Self-Made Man, were built from this want and possibility in America. That was the case of sports, which were featured on the other side of the fence in 84 of the squares showcasing sports in the city It also clearly separated different social identities which Branner made explicit by drawing openwork construction boards in some squares, and a high, closed fence, a wooden gate or a stone wall in others.

As a result, there were those who were at ease on the playground, and those who were in the suburbs where they lived. And according to Branner, you could only belong to one or the other. Eleven stories took place in classy neighborhoods and houses, as Branner used to draw opulent-looking settings to show that the scenes took place in an upper-class neighborhood. Like borders, the fence was sometimes impassable.